Archive Monthly Archives: April 2020

Covid-19 Updates Live, Massive recovery noted after coronavirus pandemic

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When it will end?

betonline According to doctors, researchers, experts and analytics no specific time frame can be provide, however hopefully we may see an end of coronavirus pandemic in mid July 2020.


Is Sugar Unhealthy?

Most of us are addicted to sweet items since our childhood and this addiction grows with time. Getting natural sugar from fruits and vegetables is good for us; however, this should also be taken in moderation. But do you know how much the added sugar is dangerous for our health? We all love to eat donuts, sugary items as well as carbonated drinks, which are all full of artificial/added sugar and high calories. These calories are not good for us, even they can create serious health issues apart from diabetes.

As compared to a few years back, people are more at stake of getting diabetes nowadays due to our unhealthy eating habits. According to a research on an average, the annual consumption of sugar by an American is 115 pounds. Isn’t it alarming? To stay on the safe side it is necessary to eliminate added sugar from our daily life.


Diseases caused by sugar (refined sugar)

duphaston tablets for conceiving Nowadays, a normal person eats more sugar per day as his body can handle and stay on high side can cause some serious ailments to your body.

• Tooth Decay
Food and beverages with the high amount of sugar can lead towards tooth decay. When we eat or drink any food item, the bacteria in our mouth utilize it to produce an acid which is harmful to our teeth. The acid affects the layer of enamel and destroys our teeth.

Read: Top 20 best food for heart jupiler pro league live

• Obesity scheveningen holland

When our body gets sugar, either it utilizes it in the form of energy or it stores it as a fat in fat cells. Studies show that more than seventy person adults and 20 percent children are suffering from obesity nowadays. One of the major causes behind this is high consumption of refined sugar products. Our sedentary lifestyle works as a catalyst to boost this issue buy paper online uk.

Is-Sugar-Unhealthy-660x439 • Diabetes

buy klonopin When we consume extra sugar, it is detected by the pancreas and it then releases ‘Insulin’ hormone to manage the high sugar level and stores it as glycogen. However, when sugar level is consistently high, pancreas keep releasing insulin, making the sugar level low and sending the body into sugar crash mode, wanting to eat more sugar. With every consumption, the level rises and the cycle continues. Similarly, when there is a lot of glucose in our blood, insulin stops working and the cell becomes resistant. Both the conditions can lead to type II diabetes.

Read: 10 Healthiest foods in the world poker tournament

• Liver Disease

When sugar breaks down into glucose and fructose, its fructose part is stored in the liver as the fat cell. Furthermore, it slowing down your metabolism and creating a disease called Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

• Hearth Problem

Sugar can also be the main culprit behind your cardiovascular disease. Triglycerides can be raised due to high fructose level creating metabolic disorder and raising the oxidized LDL cholesterol.


Tips to reduce Sugar consumption, recommended sugar intake

No one can cut off sugar entirely at first, however, they should follow some tips to minimize or eliminate its consumption.
• Whenever you have the craving to eat something sweet, always go for natural sugar food rather than added sugar items. Such as preferring having date balls instead of brownies or prefer some fruits over cake or other bakery items.
• Avoid buying foods that have processed sugar in them, when you don’t have them at home, you won’t opt that too.
• Don’t force yourself to change, instead, make it your lifestyle and change your eating habits gradually.
• If it is difficult for you to quit sugar than start eating in portion, portion control is also a good way to reduce refined sugar consumption.

Read: Best Foodstuffs for Men’s Health

For the adult person, sugar dose should be around 20 grams, and upper limit should be 35-36 grams, of course, all depends on the health of the body, weight, size…
At the end being consistent is the key to success. Don’t regret yourself if you have eaten your favorite dessert or any sugary item. Take a fresh start and again focus on your goal.


Announcement: Change of Facebook page name BUSINESS NAME CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENT


We are delighted to announce that we have recently changed the name of our business from Punjab and Govt to PRD News. Please be noted that Facebook page address will remain same as now 

The name change coincides with the increasing  research topics for the news and updates. We offer to include local and international authors to provide you major updates in economy, business and political developments .

SARS-CoV-2 – Corona Transmission

Last updated: April 16

“COVID-19 is a new disease and we are still learning about how it spreads” according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [source]

In general, respiratory virus infection can occur through: [source]

  • contact (direct or indirect)
  • droplet spray in short range transmission
  • aerosol in long-range transmission (airborne transmission)

Close Contact (6 feet, 1.8 meters) and Respiratory Droplets

safe-distance to avoid corona

“The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

  • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet)
  • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks” [source]

This idea, that large droplets of virus-laden mucus are the primary mode of transmission, guides the US CDC’s advice to maintain at least a 6-foot distance: “Maintaining good social distance (about 6 feet) is very important in preventing the spread of COVID-19” [source]

Is 6 feet enough?

Some experts contacted by LiveScience think that 6 feet (1.8 meters) is not enough [source]

Air Currents

Larger respiratory droplets (>5 μm) remain in the air for only a short time and travel only short distances, generally <1 m” (less than 3.3 feet) [source] [source] [source]

“Virus-laden small (<5 μm) aerosolized droplets can remain in the air and travel long distances, >1 m” (more than 3.3 feet) [source] [source]

A study of transmission occurring in a restaurant between people at a distance above 1 meter, observed that “strong airflow from the air conditioner could have propagated droplets” [source]

Humidity (best if between 50% and 80%)

“It is assumed that temperature and humidity modulate the viability of viruses by affecting the properties of viral surface proteins and lipid membrane” [source] Relative humidity (RH, or Saturation Ratio: the state of vapor equilibrium in room air) affects all infectious droplets with respiratory virusesindependent of their source (respiratory tract or aerosolized from any fluid) and location (in air or settled on surfaces). Relative humidity therefore affects all transmission ways but has the most pronounced effect on airborne transmission. [source]

“Measurements of indoor humidities in 40 residential apartments in New York (19) and in 6 high-quality commercial buildings in the Midwest (20) showed indoor vapor pressure of below 10 mb or indoor RH of below 24% in the winter” [source]

Experiments conducted in a study indicated “a striking correlation of the stability of winter viruses at low RH (20–50%), while the stability of summer or all-year viruses enhanced at higher RH (80%)” [source]

Airborne Transmission

Airborne Transmission of coronavius

The WHO states that “Respiratory infections can be transmitted through droplets of different sizes: when the droplet particles are >5-10 μm in diameter they are referred to as respiratory droplets, and when they are <5μm in diameter, they are referred to as droplet nuclei. According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes” [source]

The WHO defines airborne transmission as “the spread of an infectious agent caused by the dissemination of droplet nuclei that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time” [source]

Air Distance: up to 4 meters (13 feet) might be possible (in hospitals)

The maximum transmission distance of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol might be 4 m” (13.1 feet), according to a study published on April 10 on Emerging Infectious Diseases, a journal of the US CDC which also found that “SARS-CoV-2 was widely distributed in the air and on object surfaces in both the ICU and general ward (GW), implying a potentially high infection risk for medical staff and other close contacts” [source]

This is true in a hospital setting and doesn’t necessarily apply to other settings. The WHO says that “in the context of COVID-19, airborne transmission may be possible in specific circumstances and settings in which procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are performed; i.e., endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, open suctioning, administration of nebulized treatment, manual ventilation before intubation, turning the patient to the prone position, disconnecting the patient from the ventilator, non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, tracheostomy, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation” [source]

And concludes that “further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect COVID-19 virus in air samples from patient rooms where no procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are ongoing” [source]

Air Duration: up to 3 hours (but not in normal conditions, according to WHO)

Virus can remain viable “in aerosols up to 3 hours” found a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine on March 17 [source]

The WHO notes that these findings need to be interpreted carefully: “in this experimental study, aerosols were generated using a three-jet Collison nebulizer and fed into a Goldberg drum under controlled laboratory conditions. This is a high-powered machine that does not reflect normal human cough conditions. Further, the finding of COVID-19 virus in aerosol particles up to 3 hours does not reflect a clinical setting in which aerosol-generating procedures are performed – that is, this was an experimentally induced aerosol-generating procedure” [source]

Objects and Surfaces

Objects and Surfaces Transmission of corona

The virus could spread by touching an object or surface with virus present from an infected person, and then touching the mouth, nose or eyes.

Surface contamination as observed in the study cited above [source]:

  • Computer mouse (ICU 6/8, 75%; GW 1/5, 20%)
  • Trash cans (ICU 3/5, 60%; GW 0/8)
  • Sickbed handrails (ICU 6/14, 42.9%; GW 0/12)
  • Doorknobs (GW 1/12, 8.3%)

76.5% of all personal items sampled at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) were determined to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 [source]

Of these samples, 81.3% of the miscellaneous personal items were positive by PCR, which included:

  • Exercise equipment
  • Medical equipment (spirometer, pulse oximeter, nasal cannula)
  • PC and iPads
  • Reading glassesOther findings:
  • Cellular phones (83.3% positive for viral RNA)
  • Remote controls for in-room TVs (64.7% percent positive)
  • Toilets (81.0% positive)
  • Room surfaces (80.4% of all sampled)
  • Bedside tables and bed rails (75.0%)
  • Window ledges (81.8%)

Duration of contamination on objects and surfaces

Although the virus titer was greatly reduced, viable SARS-CoV-2 was measured for this length of time:

  • Plastic: up to 2-3 days
  • Stainless Steel: up to 2-3 days
  • Cardboard: up to 1 day
  • Copper: up to 4 hours


Floor Transmission of corona

“The rate of positivity was relatively high for floor swab samples (ICU 7/10, 70%; GW 2/13, 15.4%), perhaps because of gravity and air flow causing most virus droplets to float to the ground.

In addition, as medical staff walk around the ward, the virus can be tracked all over the floor, as indicated by the 100% rate of positivity from the floor in the pharmacy, where there were no patients.

Furthermore, half of the samples from the soles of the ICU medical staff shoes tested positive. Therefore, the soles of medical staff shoes might function as carriers. The 3 weak positive results from the floor of dressing room 4 might also arise from these carriers. We highly recommend that persons disinfect shoe soles before walking out of wards containing COVID-19 patients.” [source]

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